Our galaxy, the Milky Way, is typical: it has hundreds of billions of stars, enough gas and dust to make billions more stars, and at least ten times as much dark matter as all the stars and gas put together. And it’s all held together by gravity.

Like more than two-thirds of the known galaxies, the Milky Way has a spiral shape. At the center of the spiral, a lot of energy and, occasionally, vivid flares are being generated. Based on the immense gravity that would be required to explain the movement of stars and the energy expelled, the astronomers conclude that the center of the Milky Way is a supermassive black hole.

Other galaxies have elliptical shapes, and a few have unusual shapes like toothpicks or rings. The Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) shows this diversity. Hubble observed a tiny patch of sky (one-tenth the diameter of the moon) for one million seconds (11.6 days) and found approximately 10,000 galaxies, of all sizes, shapes, and colors. From the ground, we see very little in this spot, which is in the constellation Fornax.

Universe Galaxies-3 Deep Field

Hubble Ultra Deep Field galaxies:
Credit: NASA, ESA, S. Beckwith (STScI) and the HUDF Team



After the Big Bang, the Universe was composed of radiation and subatomic particles. What happened next is up for debate - did small particles slowly team up and gradually form stars, star clusters, and eventually galaxies? Or did the Universe first organize as immense clumps of matter that later subdivided into galaxies?


The shapes of galaxies are influenced by their neighbors, and, often, galaxies collide. The Milky Way is itself on a collision course with our nearest neighbor, the Andromeda galaxy. Even though it is the same age as the Milky Way, Hubble observations reveal that the stars in Andromeda's halo are much younger than those in the Milky Way. From this and other evidence, astronomers infer that Andromeda has already smashed into at least one and maybe several other galaxies.

Recent Discoveries

Date Discovery
January 23, 2017 Starbirth with a Chance of Winds? (NGC 4861)
December 26, 2016 A Cosmic Megamaser (IRAS 16399-0937)
December 5, 2016 A Transformation in Virgo (NGC 4388)
December 1, 2016 Tangled Threads Weave Through Cosmic Oddity (NGC 4696)
September 5, 2016 Into the Storm (Large Magellanic Cloud)
August 30, 2016 Record-breaking Galaxy Cluster Discovered (CL J1001)
August 11, 2016 A Galaxy Pair Coming in from the Wilderness
August 8, 2016 A Lopsided Lynx (NGC 2337)
July 19, 2016 X Marks the Spot for Milky Way Formation
July 11, 2016 'Frankenstein' Galaxy Surprises Astronomers (UGC 1382)
July 11, 2016 A Lonely Birthplace  (MCG+07-33-027)
July 4, 2016 A Stubborn Dwarf Galaxy (LEDA 677373)